AIB

AIB
We Say What You Mean

Friday, November 11, 2016

INTERPRETAR “AL OTRO LADO DEL CHARCO”: ENTREVISTA A SARITA GÓMEZ-MOLA



Por Lourdes Ramírez, Intérprete de conferencias, AIB






Tuve el privilegio de conocer a Sarita a principios de los años 90 en Ámsterdam. En aquella época yo vivía en Bruselas y, como en los Países Bajos por aquel entonces no había más que media cabina española que trabajara en condiciones AIIC, - ella - nos contrataban con mucha frecuencia a varios colegas de Bruselas para reuniones de mercado privado.

Sarita dejó su Cuba natal en el año 1961. Tras pasar por España y Suiza - donde cursó estudios universitarios - se formó como intérprete en la ESIT en París y entró en AIIC en cuanto reunió los requisitos.

Su trayectoria profesional es rica y dilatada. Ha trabajado en 3 regiones AIIC diferentes antes de dar el salto a Estados Unidos.  Actualmente reside en Houston desde 1999 y es miembro de la ATA (American Translators Association) que cuenta con más de 10.000 miembros, incluyendo los 4.156 de la División de Intérpretes.

En esta entrevista nos describe los rasgos más destacados del mercado norteamericano, haciendo especial hincapié en su experiencia como intérprete judicial.

PREGUNTA: - Sarita, tras vivir y trabajar en Países Bajos, España y Noruega en unas condiciones bastante regladas. ¿Cómo fue la experiencia de aterrizar en EE.UU y abrirte un hueco en ese mercado?

Dejé un mercado donde la única condición que no estaba normalizada (y formalizada de antemano) era si en la cabina ocuparía el asiento de la derecha o el de la izquierda y aterricé en un salvaje oeste donde el alcance de AIIC era prácticamente nulo: ni el contrato, ni la cabina, ni siquiera el segundo intérprete se podían dar por sentado. Tuve que hacer lo que no había necesitado nunca: analizar, para saber explicarlo, el porqué de todas y cada una de nuestras condiciones de trabajo.

PREGUNTA: - Has trabajado para el departamento de Estado y otros órganos del Gobierno. ¿Cuáles son los requisitos y las condiciones?

Para poder trabajar en el Departamento de Estado es obligatorio pasar un examen que organiza su oficina de Servicios Lingüísticos. La pertenencia a AIIC no es un eximente. Para el Security clearance se somete al candidato a una investigación que incluye una entrevista.

Las condiciones de trabajo allí son condiciones AIIC. Si la reunión es bilingüe, se hace con dos intérpretes que trabajan en ambos sentidos. Cuando las reuniones son itinerantes, se prescinde de la cabina y se utiliza un equipo portátil.
Algunas misiones en el extranjero de funcionarios estadounidenses (inspectores de la FDA, por ejemplo) se hacen en consecutiva con un solo intérprete.

PREGUNTA: Estás acreditada para trabajar en la judicatura, donde tienes mucha experiencia. ¿Cómo es interpretar para los tribunales?

En EE. UU., en la combinación inglés <> español existe una gran demanda de intérpretes para atender las necesidades de los inmigrantes en sus contactos con el sistema judicial. Hay grandes diferencias entre la interpretación de conferencia y la de tribunales en cuanto a las destrezas que se necesitan, las condiciones en las que se realiza el trabajo, los oradores que se interpretan, el protocolo, incluso la ética.

En las conferencias, se interpretan presentaciones y debates entre expertos en un mismo tema que suele ser técnico, lo que entraña dominar la terminología, además de la lengua culta.

En el sistema judicial, gran parte del tiempo lo que se interpretan son diálogos entre superiores y subordinados –por ejemplo, abogado y testigo, juez y acusado-- a veces en situaciones de gran tensión nerviosa. En ciertos actos procesales, esos diálogos son guiones que se repiten, lo que reduce la dificultad del trabajo. Pero también hay una gran diversidad temática, sobre todo en las declaraciones juradas que se toman de los testigos fuera de los tribunales, y hay que saber interpretar en todo tipo de estilos y registros lingüísticos, además del jurídico, y conocer los regionalismos y coloquialismos dialectales de distintos países.

Por ejemplo, un juez que quiere ser clemente, en busca de una circunstancia atenuante, pregunta a un imputado mexicano: “¿Por qué cometió usted el delito?” El imputado contesta: “Porque se me hizo fácil”. ¿Qué quiere decir con eso? ¿Que calculó que le sería fácil salirse con la suya? Las interpretaciones más naturales, “because I found it easy to do” o “because I figured it would be easy for me”, dan a entender al juez que hubo mens rea, intención de delinquir. En realidad, lo que quiso decir el inculpado es: “actué de manera impulsiva y sin pensar en las consecuencias”. O sea: “I didn’t think it through”, “I didn’t think of the consequences”. Las dos interpretaciones pueden repercutir de manera muy distinta en la severidad de la sentencia.                                                                                                             
Otro ejemplo: en un juicio contra el supuesto jefe de una banda de narcotraficantes, el fiscal pregunta a un testigo centroamericano: “¿Por qué estaba usted haciendo guardia en la casa donde se escondía la droga?” El testigo responde: “Porque ocupaba dinero”. ¿¿¿??? Un intérprete de conferencia puede interpretar toda su vida a delegados de Latinoamérica y nunca oír esa expresión. En EE.UU., un intérprete de tribunales la interpreta constantemente. ¿Traducción?: “Because I needed the money”.

En muchos estados, como en Texas, ejercer la interpretación judicial implica aprobar un examen. Una vez conseguida la licencia, hay que renovarla anualmente mediante un curso de formación continua de ocho horas con un componente de dos horas de ética.
La certificación más prestigiosa (y lucrativa) a la que puede optar un intérprete de inglés <> español en EE. UU. es la que lo habilita para trabajar en los tribunales federales. Son dos rigurosos exámenes: uno escrito y (al año siguiente) uno oral de consecutiva, simultánea y traducción a la vista. La ATA ofrece una certificación en traducción escrita, previo examen no menos exigente (de ello puedo dar fe, porque pertenezco al grupo de inglés al español que elabora y califica los exámenes).
En un país tan litigioso como lo es EE. UU., es lógico que se dé tanta importancia a las certificaciones. En un tribunal, una interpretación poco profesional puede dar lugar a una injusticia. En un hospital, a una demanda por negligencia médica.

PREGUNTA: - ¿Cómo se organiza el trabajo en el mercado privado, cómo se gestiona la oferta y la demanda?

A falta de certificaciones para la interpretación de conferencia, los clientes suelen dar por válidas las que existen, a pesar de que poco tengan que ver con ella. Hay muchos vendedores de servicios lingüísticos de todo tipo, directores de proyectos, proveedores de equipo, organizadores de eventos, que no son intérpretes de conferencia. Esa situación me impulsó a emprender un proyecto educativo que consistió en la creación de un sitio web (www.ConferenceInterpreting.info) y un librito electrónico titulado (Don’t) get lost in interpretation: a guide to hiring professional conference interpreting services in the Unidad States.

El librito está dirigido a usuarios, intérpretes y proveedores de intérpretes y resume la información que la AIIC ofrece en su sitio web, enfocada hacia el mercado privado EE. UU. El argumento de partida es que la interpretación es un servicio y, como tal, no se puede probar antes de usarlo. Por lo tanto, es conveniente saber reconocer a un buen proveedor de servicios lingüísticos y ser capaz de evaluar las credenciales de un intérprete. El librito también proporciona las claves para el buen rendimiento del servicio: contratar intérpretes cualificados en número suficiente, dotarlos del equipo necesario, proporcionarles la información que necesitan para prepararse de antemano.

En conclusión, podríamos decir que el ejercicio de nuestra profesión no se diferencia tanto a uno y otro lado del Atlántico. Para hacer un buen trabajo, los intérpretes tienen que disponer de buen sonido, poderse documentar para la conferencia y trabajar en equipos de como mínimo dos. Lo único es que en el mercado privado de EEUU (en comparación con el de Europa), el intérprete pasa más tiempo educando a los clientes, colegas y proveedores de intérpretes no experimentados.

Donde sí hay un elemento diferenciador es en todo lo relacionado con la interpretación a distancia - muy practicada en un país con distancias tan enormes – y en la remuneración del intérprete - que puede llegar a ser por minuto (¡!) - pero es una cuestión que merece todo un capítulo aparte y quizás el tema de otra colaboración futura -.

Thursday, October 20, 2016

A Tribute to Richard Kingsbury

By Felix Ordeig, Conference Interpreter, AIB



I recently came across a eulogy of the late Richard Kingsbury, conference interpreter among many other pursuits, delivered by his cousin Martin at his funeral service. It makes for a good read, and brought back memories of my encounter with Richard earlier this year.

Now that just over six months have elapsed since his passing, I would like this text to be a brief tribute to quite an original, out-of-the ordinary and very likeable colleague who I had the privilege of working with.

I must add, that sadly, I was the last person to work with him. I shall also share a couple of thoughts on a tricky subject- namely how long an interpreter’s working life should last.

For those who never met or heard of him, Richard Kingsbury was a long-standing practitioner of our profession who for many years was an in-house interpreter and translator with the International Coffee Organisation (ICO) based in London, later becoming  a distinguished freelance working for many international institutions and commodity organizations. Our paths had only crossed fleetingly, at EU or UN- agency meetings; I had been briefly introduced to him years back but we had never worked together. I had however heard of him on the grapevine, so to speak, and on the basis of hearsay – oh, dear, how often is this the case in our profession!! – I had formed an image of someone  “d’un certain age” and like some elderly interpreters, quirky, temperamental, eccentric and rather on the tetchy and  morose side; everyone admitted however that as  an interpreter he had much experience and professional prestige. He was known to be very well read  and widely travelled, with a passion for languages, working  in both the English and Portuguese booths, with active Spanish, and a longish list of C languages, including Russian and German.

So it was with a certain sense of trepidation that I learned I would be working with this - in my mind -rather formidable character in the English booth at a week long series of coffee production-related events in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in March this year.

I had been recruited at the last minute  by the ICO. a body I had never worked for, dealing with a subject- coffee – of which I didn’t have much of an inkling apart from enjoying a really good “macchiato” while knowing it was probably not very good for one’s blood pressure. 

“Better watch your p’s and q’s” I thought to myself, as I hastily started to gen up on the basics of this commodity and its organisation, learning about the different varieties – arabiga , robusta – and the diseases: rust, wilt, et al...

When the members of the interpreting team gathered at our hotel in the relatively sanitized UN and embassy district of Addis, slightly bleary-eyed  after predictably long and tiring journeys from all over Europe,  I met a wiry, alert and well-dressed silver-haired colleague, very courteous but rather quiet, even circumspect.

On day one of the meeting my reservations quickly dissipated. Richard turned out to be a very helpful booth-mate, assisting me with key vocabulary and above all, as an old “Coffee” hand (that’s how he referred to the ICO) he gave me invaluable background on the ins and outs of the body, its origins, evolution and its “raison d’etre” after the end of coffee quotas in the early `90’s, plus the vagaries of the the economics and politics of  the global trade in coffee,etc…chapter and verse,  all  with a mercifully light touch.

As time wore on, he became quite chatty and  sprightly.

A digression here : one dubious advantage of manning the English booth in many international organizations is that one has plenty of down time in the company of one’s colleague  - which can be good or bad, of course (I’m not gloating about this controversial aspect of the English booth’s workload – or lack of it; it’s just the way things often are at the moment. Perhaps someone else will discuss this in a future post). But it does give one the chance to have enjoyable conversations if the opportunity arises, as it did on this occasion

Richard talked about his career and life in general in a very humorous, self-deprecating way, devoid of all pomposity or self aggrandizement, rather with a quiet wit and often  a delightful and slightly mischievous twinkle in his eye,as one team colleague remarked. He was a  refreshingly good raconteur indeed, with many interesting tales to tell, and it was a pleasure to listen to him.

On reading the words written by his cousin, who knew him well over a whole lifetime, and therefore infinitely better than someone who only shared four days with him, in and out of the booth,I became aware what a varied and interesting life Richard led. But some of the stories he told me are there, obviously with many more details: for instance his  recollection  of a blissful childhood in  Monserrate, the estate near Sintra built and owned by a wealthy English family and managed by his parents. His vivid description of the Serra da Sintra landscape - which I am familiar with - did justice to the eerie, almost magical nature of the thickly-wooded hills, often shrouded in mist. His happy childhood memories  had drawn him there over the years whenever he had a chance, and in fact he had a second home there. He told me about how the wondrous vegetation there had instilled in him a love of gardening and horticulture; he talked to me proudly of the farm he lived on in Sussex, his garden, fruit orchards,vegetable plots   and his collection of domestic animals. He mentioned  how much he loved the outdoors, and disliked big cities and to the extent he and his wife tried to be as  self-sufficient as possible.

But he also talked at length about his travels;  of making his way  overland as a young man from London to Cairo via Istanbul and the Middle East, on foot, hitch-hiking and by whatever other means of transport became available - a trip that would be very difficult if not impossible today. Listening to him reminded me of Patrick Leigh-Fermour’s magnificent descriptions of his wanderings on foot through Central Europe in the ‘20’s and 30’s.  which he had also read and much enjoyed. That led to his discussing Willaim Beckford’s “Travels in Spain and Portugal” written in the late 18th. century in such an amusing way  that it made me want to read the  book (which of course I have not  yet got hold let alone even  began)

He had worked as a young man in San Miguel de Tucumán, in northern Argentina, teaching English – and had very fond memories of  his time there, describing in quick brush-strokes some of the characters  he had met- he had indeed a way with words, borne out by his vivid descriptions of his travels through the Andean countries, including a scary bus trip up (and down)  a  nightmarish narrow mountain road in Bolivia with a sheer drop to a deep ravine; he  recalled seeing a prescient sign by the road side “ Recuerde  que está en las manos del Señor”  as he realized the brakes were getting faultier by the minute. His  descriptions of  staying  with Aymara,Quechua and other indigenous communities in Bolivia,Peru, Ecuador and Colombia long before mass tourism made inroads into these areas, bore reminiscences of a very young  Ernesto ”Che” Guevara’s “Diario de una motocicleta”, his diary of his travels through Latin America.

Mentioning Guevara, he had also by the way visited Havana shortly before the fall of the Batista regime and the entry of Fidel Castro into the city: he talked about the wild and slightly feverish end-of-an-era atmosphere in the city.

We also discussed our profession and the many people he had met– one thing that struck me was that he was always very discreet and never once criticized a colleague, and surely he must have met more than his his fair share of  interpreters throughout his long professional life.

This brings me to the question of how long an interpreter ought to stay on the job (a topical matter for me, by the way, as I am rapidly approaching my mid-sixties). Richard started working at the ICO in 1964, a year when most of the  current practitioners of this noble profession were either unborn ,still toddlers, or in their early childhood. At one point Richard was telling me how much he enjoyed flying on his micro-light, and how he had let his licence lapse a few years earlier when he was 76. Stunned I asked him how old he was: 83, he replied.

Now many of us have unfortunately worked with ageing colleagues who were past their “shelf-life” and who should have known that it was high time for them to bow out with dignity. I personally am happy to continue working as long as I feel that my abilities are still unimpaired, but would not wish in any case to be still working much after 70 (dear readers, you may call me to account when that moment arrives!)

Richard Kingsbury was probably an exception to the rule: a keen mind, still full of curiosity about people and life in general, a sharp wit, and I bear witness, an excellent interpreter (granted, of course that he knew his Coffee backwards)

He was also a great companion, appreciated by all in our team, and we were all shocked and upset  at what happened. On the last day he did not turn up in the booth- concern turned into alarm when after frantic calls to the hotel and the UN police he was found unconscious in his bedroom and hastily taken to hospital, where a massive brain haemorrhage was diagnosed. The local organizers and government authorities ensured he got the best local medical attention available, but he died a few days after the end of the conference, which deeply saddened all of us in the team.

He had at one moment told me he dreaded physical disability and losing personal autonomy and becoming dependent. So in a sense although terrible for his loved ones, for him it was not a bad way to go.

I got the impression that he lived his life to the full right to the end, with an adventurous  spirit, but also a very practical approach to life, as well as with an enquiring mind. In the short time I was with him I took a liking to the man; he was good company and I enjoyed his sense of humour, his unfeigned modesty, and total lack of snobbishness, his intellectual  curiosity about both his surroundings and the people he came across, his friendliness and good manners. But I also suspect that he was a very decent human being.  

Farewell therefore to an unconventional and amusing gentleman – may he rest in peace.


Friday, September 23, 2016

Mentoring: An old idea that’s still new


Conference Interpreter




Are you a young interpreter just starting out, feeling rather alone and not knowing quite how to jump-start your career? Have you thought about working with a mentor?

Are you a more experienced or retired interpreter watching beginners in their efforts to break into a complicated market and wondering what the future of your profession may be? Have you thought about offering your services as a mentor to help orient them?

The Cambridge English Dictionary defines a mentor as "a person who gives a younger or less experienced person help and advice over a period of time, especially at work or school".

The term was derived from ancient Greece and both its meaning and purpose have remained the same till today. A mentor may play a formal or informal role, which may change according to the mentee’s needs.

It is important not to confuse mentoring and coaching, although the two concepts have some points in common.

Coaching is more project oriented and is also more focused on technical aspects, somewhat akin to preparing for a conference — clarifying terminology, gaining a basic understanding of the subject matter, studying presentations.

Mentoring takes a wider approach, looking beyond the practical skills. In a nutshell:

         Practicing the profession. Things like ethics in professional practice, relationships with fellow interpreters who may be both colleagues and competitors, relations with clients.
         Balancing personal and professional life.
         Tricks of the trade, beyond what the young interpreter learned in school.
         Dilemmas typically faced by independent professionals; for example, when to accept an assignment and when to turn it down.
         A conference interpreter is a skilled linguist but is also managing a business, something not usually included in interpreter training programs.


The mentor’s view

What does a mentor do?

A mentor can be a role model, coach, sounding board, voice of reason, emotional support, counselor, and a trusted resource. A mentor is an experienced person who can help a young interpreter cope with the doubts and uncertainties we all face when beginning a new venture.

What do I need to know?

It is important to understand the new interpreter’s view of the profession and be aware that things will have changed since you started, especially if you have been working many years or are retired. Today there are numerous ways of applying simultaneous interpreting beyond the traditional conference setting, such as videoconferencing, remote interpreting, web streaming, combinations of the different modes…

There is more international contact in the world now, so an interpreter may often work on a team with a wide variety of languages, many of them not used in your part of the world years ago when the world was divided into smaller compartments, usually within a limited group of languages.

The technical skills required by the conference interpreter today will not be the same as the skills needed by interpreters when you started working.

It is important for young interpreters to understand that being an interpreter is more than just interpreting. They also need to acquire skills for running a business.

Where do I start if I want to become a mentor?

If you belong to a professional association, inquire there. The Internet also has plenty of resources, including discussion groups. Colleagues who have experience in mentoring can orient you.


AIIC has information on mentoring available to members and non-members alike. The Vega network is oriented toward young interpreters but also has valuable resources for prospective mentors.

Useful links:

An overview of mentoring

A good place to start to find out more about being a mentor

Similarities between mentoring and coaching

Differences between mentoring and coaching

The mentee’s view

How can a mentor help me?

When young people complete their studies, their thoughts turn to finding employment. A first job is more than just a way to earn a living; it is also a place to learn how to use new skills out in the “real world” and start building a career. Young people also learn on-the-job skills from their companions in the workplace.

Conference interpreting is a profession that has few entry-level jobs to offer new interpreters coming into the marketplace. International organizations are the most obvious source of employment, but they require a level of skill and experience that most beginners don’t have.

In the private market, few businesses feel the need to hire permanent interpreters. They may only occasionally organize activities that require linguistic skills beyond what company staff members have.

Which means that recent graduates find themselves thrust into the role of independent professional, something they may not have expected and may not be prepared for.

What do I want from a mentor?

You need to explain to your prospective mentor what you want him/her to do. Once you start working you will begin to see areas where you could use some advice and assistance, such as:

         Gray areas like linguistic limitations, technical knowledge gaps, what types of assignments to accept or not accept
         Approaching a prospective client
         The business side of your profession: taxes, legal requirements, setting your fees
         Professional ethics
         Relations with other interpreters

How do I find a mentor?

         Older colleagues, including retirees, living in your town or elsewhere.
         Ask other colleagues if they know of someone.
         AIIC can offer assistance to its members in finding a mentor through its Vega network, a world-wide network of professional conference interpreters - all of them members of AIIC - dedicated to helping junior interpreters in pursuing their new career.

How can I be certain of making a good choice?

Like anything in life, there’s no recipe for success. You do your research and step out. If you are not convinced after a first interview or if you’re not satisfied after a while, you needn’t feel obligated to continue.

How do I stay in contact with my mentor?

Ideally, by meeting in person. This may not always be possible since interpreting, especially conference interpretation, requires frequent traveling. However, there are plenty of online communication solutions that can be as satisfying as a personal meeting.

In sum, mentorship can be a valuable resource for young interpreters and a satisfying activity for older interpreters.

Useful links:

Why do I need a mentor?

AIIC’s Vega network

Advice on finding a mentor
http://lifehacker.com/how-do-i-ask-someone-to-be-my-mentor-1626463146